Balai Pustaka - A Colonial Wolf in Sheep's Clothing. Although the colonial institution Volkslectuur, or Balai Pustaka, is well- known within the field of Indonesian. Balai Pustaka and for its principal product: books in the modern sense o the word. All this is not to say that before there was no literature in Indonesia. The story of Balai Pustaka begins in , a memorable year in the history of modern Indonesia, for that was the year in which Boedi Oetomo, the first nationalist.
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In the crucial period of springwhen the nationalist movement displayed a constantly growing radicalism, balai pustaka Governor General deemed it urgent to investigate possible ways to restore or regain the confidence of the disillusioned indigenous intellectuals.
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According to the documents, Ziesel agreed to undertake balai pustaka a journey for the purpose of spying, but he demanded perfect secrecy with regard to the delicate venture. Unfortunately, no report on the Ziesel journey have been detected in the archives so far.
The idea of using the Volkslectuur as a baro- 34 meter for the political climate originated from Rinkes. But balai pustaka followed a different strategy than the administration: Attempts to Control the Indigenous Press Already in Rinkes had raised the criticism that the medium of the press was not being effectively used as a means of enlightening the indigenous population Op.
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Only in did he finally obtain sufficient room balai pustaka maneuver to put his tactics to a practical test. The IPO observed and balai pustaka the indigenous journalistic market, and its Dutch translations had become obligatory reading matter for all colonial officials.
At first produced by the Adviser for Native Affairs, this review of articles was compiled by the Volkslectuur from on, or to be more precise, by the newly installed press section of balai pustaka Volkslectuur. The press section functioned as one of the most delicate sensors of colonial power.
Rinkes was not the only one to be aware of the usefulness of the IPO. A balai pustaka list of colonial institutions gratefully drew information from it. Documents prove that on account of IPO summaries, repressive measures were taken against indigenous persons or press organs.
For the sake of balai pustaka pretended neutrality, the repressive character of the IPO had, of course, to be concealed.
Inabout two hundred products of the balai pustaka press were regularly seen and partly translated by the Volkslectuur. Originally meant to keep colonial officials informed, the IPO soon aroused interest within the business community, so that the IPO was made accessible in the form of a weekly edition of about fifty pages.
A monthly - and secret - condensed version of only twenty pages continued to be distributed exclusively in official circles.
Ever since his time as Adviser, Rinkes' aim was not only to observe, but also to control and indirectly to influence the balai pustaka press and even to make it serve the colonial interests. In an official note, Rinkes sketched out his plan as follows: In contrast to the higher officials concerned, Rinkes did firmly believe in the possibility of at least partly co-opting Indonesian press organs.
A very personal ambition made him want to bring the printing plant Evolutie led by Datoek Toemenggoeng under his control.
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Despite the fact that it had been financed mainly through a government loan, Evolutie still balai pustaka its own independence, most of all with regard to its daily newspaper Neratja.
More than anything else, 35 Rinkes balai pustaka to get his fingers on the newspaper Neratja. Rinkes took strong issue with Dt.
Toemenggoeng over an article on Sare- kat Islam and one of its leaders, Tjokroaminoto. Toemenggoeng accused him of censorship.
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In return Rinkes raised the issue of repaying the balai pustaka. Finally Rinkes offered generously to take over the printing plant, including its staff and all its publication and attach it to the Volkslectuur in absolute secrecy.
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In fact he even offered to liquidate all remaining debts. In the end, Kern informed Rinkes by letter that he neither shared his point of view, and therefore would not support his concern, nor did he appreciate Rinkes' way of handling the affair, and that he most of all disapproved of his harsh balai pustaka letter of At this point, the officials in charge hoped to have settled the balai pustaka, but that was not balai pustaka case.
Rinkes soon started to launch numerous articles into Indonesian and Dutch periodicals which revealed to the public the hitherto balai pustaka secret of government loans to indigenous press balai pustaka at the same time, he discredited Neratja as being corrupt.