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Because the prescription review process leads immediately to the generation of computer-printed labels and patient charges, these 2 aspects also should be mentioned by instructors teaching the technologies of the medication use process.

In particular, pharmacy labels on dispensed products offer an excellent opportunity to introduce basic concepts of information representation design general knowledge ebook 2011 readability.

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Automated billing is another area deserving of consideration, especially because the efficiency benefits of automated billing are often hampered by the challenges of achieving an accurate list of medication charges.

Compounding and Dispensing Compounding and dispensing are associated general knowledge ebook 2011 a host of newer technologies. A list of related pharmacy informatics topics is found in Appendix 1. Pharmacies have been automating their supply general knowledge ebook 2011 for several decades in an effort to achieve optimal, perpetual inventory management.

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Automation now is used to improve the safety of the supply chain by inserting barcode validation steps as products are received, stored, retrieved, and dispensed.

General knowledge ebook 2011 should be provided with a general overview of the pharmaceutical supply chain for consumers through retail channels and for hospitals and clinics through wholesale channels. With respect to the medication use process, compounding and dispensing is the step where patient prescription information is associated for the first time with actual, physical dosage forms in order to create finished, dispensed products.

Robotics in pharmacy practice can be addressed while teaching current compounding and dispensing practices. More than one type of automated, individualized syringe-filling robot has been brought to market.

These technologies are deserving of study, especially as robotic drug selection and syringe general knowledge ebook 2011 clearly depict the varied and exceptional requirements that must be met to properly produce dosage forms ready for administration to patients.

For example, after viewing a video demonstration of a syringe-filling robot, students could be asked to identify the required steps in the general knowledge ebook 2011 process, the safety controls applied, and the compounding environment created and maintained by robotic technologies.

Automated identification of drug products, usually through the use of barcode scanning, is another important technology being applied to compounding and dispensing workflows. Students should become familiar enough general knowledge ebook 2011 the basics of barcodes so that they can troubleshoot the most common barcode printing and scanning problems.

Automated counting machines, packaging machines, inventory management technologies, and dispensing machines all rely on barcodes as general knowledge ebook 2011 move from the pharmacy to patients.

Students should be aware of the unique role that automated dispensing machines play in clinic and acute care settings. The ongoing debate about the optimal operational use of these technologies should be reviewed, along with the benefits and challenges of using computerized drug distribution general knowledge ebook 2011 for dispensing on nursing units and away from the pharmacy.


Medication Administration The administration of medications, whether self-administered by patients and family members at home, administered by caregivers in clinics, or administered within the context of episodic acute care is associated with several informatics topics Appendix 1.

Nurses are taught that for each medication they administer to a patient they are to confirm that the right medication is being given to the right patient in the right dose by the right general knowledge ebook 2011 at the right time.

However, as medication administration workflow research continues, additional best practice general knowledge ebook 2011 administration imperatives are being identified.


An ideal medication administration practice would include the elements of safety, quality, patient assessment, documentation, and patient education and engagement in their own care. Computerized infusion devices with drug error reduction systems are now available to improve the safety of intravenous infusions of various types, including continuous infusions, patient-controlled analgesia, total parenteral nutrition, epidural infusions, and intermittent infusions from syringes.

These technologies often inspire a consolidation of available, dispensed drug product concentrations for the same drug from general knowledge ebook 2011 pharmacies, general knowledge ebook 2011 is intended to reduce complexity and improve safety by preventing confusion of dispensed product concentrations.

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An example exercise to illustrate the pharmacist's role in developing a smart infusion pump drug library would require students to consolidate a list of available medications based primarily on usage data and best practice criteria.

Students also should be familiar with the data general knowledge ebook 2011 the use of, the current inadequacies, and the predicted future developments for smart infusion pump systems. Automated drug product identification, typically using barcode scanning to identify products using drug product databases, is now a fundamental medication use process technology.

Much has been written about using barcodes to identify unit-of-use medications. Pharmacy students being introduced to pharmacy informatics should be instructed in both the benefits and the challenges of successfully using barcode scanning to identify drug products.

Most new pharmacists will encounter some general knowledge ebook 2011 of barcoding in their practice, regardless of the setting.